Harvest and protect organizational knowledge assets

KMTo identify attractive opportunities, organizations must systematically manage their explicit and implicit knowledge assets, finding ways to share, combine, disseminate and maintain this unique type of capital.

IP1Innovation opportunities can be sources of competitive differentiation provided that the intellectual capital they are based on is actively protected through a mix of secrecy, lock-in and/or intellectual property rights.

IP2Innovation opportunities can be leveraged if they are supported by effective patenting strategies, balancing protection and disclosure. Not everything that can be protected should be, and patents can and should foster rather than hinder collaboration.

Bibliography

Managing corporate knowledge assets

Keywords: boundary spanning, explicit vs. tacit knowledge, gatekeepers, knowledge management, knowledge absorption, machine learning

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Protecting intellectual capital

Keywords: copyright, infringment, institutions, intellectual property rights, open source, public good, registered design, trademark, trade secret

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  • (Article) Pisano, G.P. (2006). Profiting from innovation and the intellectual property revolution. Research Policy, 35(8), 1122-1130.
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Managing patents

Keywords: benefits and drawbacks from patents, freedom to operate, licensing, patent applications, patent strategy, patent trolls

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  • (Article) Griliches, Z. (1998). Patent statistics as economic indicators: a survey. In R&D and productivity: the econometric evidence (pp. 287-343). University of Chicago Press.
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  • (Article) Jell, F., Henkel, J., & Wallin, M. W. (2017). Offensive patent portfolio races. Long Range Planning, 50(5), 531-549.
  • (Article) Leiponen, A., & Byma, J. (2009). If you cannot block, you better run: Small firms, cooperative innovation, and appropriation strategies. Research Policy, 38(9), 1478-1488.
  • (Article) Lemley, M. A., & Shapiro, C. (2005). Probabilistic patents. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(2), 75-98.
  • (Article) Levin, R. C., Klevorick, A. K., Nelson, R. R., Winter, S. G., Gilbert, R., & Griliches, Z. (1987). Appropriating the returns from industrial research and development. Brookings papers on economic activity, 1987(3), 783-831.
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  • (Article) Long (2002) “Information Costs in patent and copyright” Virginia Law Review, 90(2), pp. 463-549
  • (Article) Mansfield, E., Schwartz, M., & Wagner, S. (1981). Imitation costs and patents: an empirical study. The Economic Journal, 91(364), 907-918.
  • (Article) Moser, P. (2013). Patents and innovation: evidence from economic history. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 27(1), 23-44.
  • (Article) Mowery, D. C., Nelson, R. R., Sampat, B. N., & Ziedonis, A. A. (2001). The growth of patenting and licensing by US universities: an assessment of the effects of the Bayh–Dole act of 1980. Research Policy, 30(1), 99-119.
  • (Article) Mowery, D. C., Sampat, B. N., & Ziedonis, A. A. (2002). Learning to patent: Institutional experience, learning, and the characteristics of US university patents after the Bayh-Dole Act, 1981-1992. Management Science, 48(1), 73-89.
  • (Article) O’donoghue, T., Scotchmer, S., & Thisse, J. F. (1998). Patent breadth, patent life, and the pace of technological progress. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 7(1), 1-32
  • (Article) Paik, Y., & Zhu, F. (2016). The impact of patent wars on firm strategy: evidence from the global smartphone industry. Organization Science, 27(6), 1397-1416.
  • (Article) Parker, G., & Van Alstyne, M. (2018). Innovation, openness, and platform control. Management Science, 64(7), 3015-3032
  • (Article) Pisano, G.P. & Teece, D.J. (2007). How to Capture Value from Innovation: Shaping Intellectual Property and Industry Architecture. California Management Review. 50(1), 278 –296.
  • (Article) Reitzig, M., Henkel, J., & Heath, C. (2007). On sharks, trolls, and their patent prey—Unrealistic damage awards and firms’ strategies of “being infringed”. Research Policy, 36(1), 134-154.
  • (Article) Schmidt, M. P. (2013). Patent strategies in the process‐related industries: outline of the problems. R&D Management, 43(3), 242-251.
  • (Article) Somaya, D. (2012). Patent strategy and management: An integrative review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 38(4), 1084-1114.
  • (Article) Steensma, H. K., Chari, M., & Heidl, R. (2015). The quest for expansive intellectual property rights and the failure to disclose known relevant prior art. Strategic Management Journal, 36(8), 1186-1204.
  • (Article) West, J. (2003). How open is open enough?: Melding proprietary and open source platform strategies. Research Policy, 32(7), 1259-1285.
  • (Article) Williams, H. L. (2013). Intellectual property rights and innovation: Evidence from the human genome. Journal of Political Economy, 121(1), 1-27.
  • (Article) Ziedonis, R. H. (2004). Don’t fence me in: Fragmented markets for technology and the patent acquisition strategies of firms. Management Science, 50(6), 804-820.
  • (Article) Ziedonis, R. H. (2008). On the apparent failure of patents: A response to Bessen and Meurer. Academy of Management Perspectives, 22(4), 21-29.

(c) Prof. Benoit Gailly, Louvain School of Management

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