Harvest and protect organizational knowledge assets

KMTo identify attractive opportunities, organizations must systematically manage their explicit and implicit knowledge assets, finding ways to share, combine, disseminate and maintain this unique type of capital.

IP1Innovation opportunities can be sources of competitive differentiation provided that the intellectual capital they are based on is actively protected through a mix of secrecy, lock-in and/or intellectual property rights.

IP2Innovation opportunities can be leveraged if they are supported by effective patenting strategies, balancing protection and disclosure. Not everything that can be protected should be, and patents can and should foster rather than hinder collaboration.


Managing corporate knowledge assets

Keywords: boundary spanning, explicit vs. tacit knowledge, gatekeepers, knowledge management, knowledge absorption, machine learning

  • (Book) Anderson, N., Coasta, A.C., (editors) (2010), Innovation and Knowledge Management, London, Sage Library in Business & Management
  • (Book) De la Mothe, J., & Foray, D. (Eds.). (2012). Knowledge management in the innovation process (Vol. 24). Springer Science & Business Media.
  • (Book) Haskel, J., & Westlake, S. (2017). Capitalism without Capital: The Rise of the Intangible Economy. Princeton University Press.
  • (Book) Kurzweil, Ray. How to create a mind: The secret of human thought revealed. Penguin, 2013.
  • (Book) Little, Stephen, and Tim Ray. Managing knowledge: an essential reader. Sage, 2005.
  • (Book) McInerney, C. R., & Day, R. E. (2007). Rethinking knowledge management (Vol. 12). Springer-Verlag.;
  • (Book) Newell S., et al. (2009). Managing Knowledge Work and Innovation, Palgrave Macmillan, UK
  • (Book) Nonaka, I., & Teece, D. J. (Eds.). (2001). Managing industrial knowledge: creation, transfer and utilization. Sage.
  • (Book) Probst, G., Romhardt, K., & Raub, S. (2000). Managing knowledge: Building blocks for success. J. Wiley.
  • (Book) Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and science of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • (Book) Stephens-Davidowitz, Seth. Everybody Lies: Big Data, New Data, and What the Internet Can Tell Us About Who We Really Are. Dey St. (2017).
  • (Book) Stewart, Thomas A. The wealth of knowledge: Intellectual capital and the twenty-first century organization. Crown Business, 2007.
  • (Book) Tidd, J. (2012). From Knowledge Management to Strategic Competence. Imperial College Press, London. Third edition.
  • (Video) Courageous Conversation: We really need to talk about knowledge management 2014
  • (Video) Knowledge Management in 87 Seconds by InToto Knowledge
  • (Video) Knowledge Management and Innovation, Dr Kondal Reddy Kandadi, TEDxUniversityofBolton
  • (Article) Akhavan, P., Jafari, M., & Fathian, M. (2006). Critical success factors of knowledge management systems: a multi-case analysis. European Business Review, 18(2), 97-113.
  • (Article) Alavi, M., & Leidner, D. E. (2001). Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: Conceptual foundations and research issues. MIS quarterly, 107-136.
  • (Article) Amit, R., & Schoemaker, P.J. (1993). Strategic assets and organizational rent. Strategic Management Journal, 14(1), 33-46.
  • (Article) Argote, L., & Ingram, P. (2000). Knowledge transfer: A basis for competitive advantage in firms. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 82(1), 150-169.
  • (Article) Basadur, M., & Gelade, G.A. (2006). The role of knowledge management in the innovation process. Creativity and Innovation Management, 15(1), 45-62.
  • (Article) Brown, J. S., & Duguid, P. (2001). Knowledge and organization: A social-practice perspective. Organization Science, 12(2), 198-213.
  • (Article) Carlile, P. R., & Rebentisch, E. S. (2003). Into the black box: The knowledge transformation cycle. Management Science, 49(9), 1180-1195.
  • (Article) Choi, B., Poon, S. K., & Davis, J. G. (2008). Effects of knowledge management strategy on organizational performance: A complementarity theory-based approach. Omega, 36(2), 235-251.
  • (Article) Civi, E. (2000). Knowledge management as a competitive asset: a review. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 18(4), 166-174.
  • (Article) Conner, K. R., & Prahalad, C. K. (1996). A resource-based theory of the firm: Knowledge versus opportunism. Organization Science, 7(5), 477-501.
  • (Article) Cowan, R., David, P. A., & Foray, D. (2000). The explicit economics of knowledge codification and tacitness. Industrial and Corporate Change, 9(2), 211-253.
  • (Article) David, W., & Fahey, L. (2000). Diagnosing cultural barriers to knowledge management. The Academy of Management Executive, 14(4), 113-127.
  • (Article) Donate, M. J., & de Pablo, J. D. S. (2015). The role of knowledge-oriented leadership in knowledge management practices and innovation. Journal of Business Research, 68(2), 360-370.
  • (Article) Du Plessis, Marina. “The role of knowledge management in innovation.” Journal of Knowledge Management 11.4 (2007): 20-29.
  • (Article) Gibbert, M., Leibold, M., & Probst, G. (2002). Five styles of customer knowledge management, and how smart companies use them to create value. European Management Journal, 20(5), 459-469.
  • (Article) Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A., & Segars, A. H. (2001). Knowledge management: An organizational capabilities perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(1), 185-214.
  • (Article) Grant, R.M. (1996). Toward a knowledge‐based theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17(S2), 109-122.
  • (Article) Gupta, A. K., & Govindarajan, V. (2000). Knowledge flows within multinational corporations. Strategic Management Journal, 473-496.
  • (Article) Hansen, M., Nohria, N., & Tierney, T. (1999). What’s your strategy for knowledge management. Harvard Business Review, 77(2), 106-116.
  • (Article) Ipe, M. (2003). Knowledge sharing in organizations: A conceptual framework. Human Resource Development Review, 2(4), 337-359.
  • (Article) Johannessen, J. A., Olsen, B., & Olaisen, J. (1999). Aspects of innovation theory based on knowledge-management. International Journal of Information Management, 19(2), 121-139.
  • (Article) Johnson, B., Lorenz, E., & Lundvall, B. Å. (2002). Why all this fuss about codified and tacit knowledge?. Industrial and Corporate Change, 11(2), 245-262.
  • (Article) Kogut, B., & Zander, U. (1992). Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities, and the replication of technology. Organization Science, 3(3), 383-397.
  • (Article) Levina, N., & Vaast, E. (2005). The emergence of boundary spanning competence in practice: implications for implementation and use of information systems. MIS Quarterly, 335-363.
  • (Article) Lin, H. (2007). ‘Knowledge sharing and firm innovation capability: an empirical study’. International Journal of Manpower, 28, 315-332.
  • (Article) Martín-de Castro, G., Lopez-Saez, P., & Delgado-Verde, M. (2011). Towards a knowledge-based view of firm innovation. Theory and empirical research. Journal of Knowledge Management, 15(6), 871-874.
  • (Article) Matusik, S. F., & Hill, C. W. (1998). The utilization of contingent work, knowledge creation, and competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(4), 680-697.
  • (Article) Miller, D., Cardinal, L., & Fern, M. (2007). The use of knowledge for technological innovation within diversified firms. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 308-326.
  • (Article) Miller, K. D. (2008). Simon and Polanyi on rationality and knowledge. Organization Studies, 29(7), 933-955.
  • (Article) Mors, M. (2010). Innovation in a global consulting firm: When the problem is too much diversity. Strategic Management Journal, 31, 841-872.
  • (Article) Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization Science, 5(1), 14-37.
  • (Article) Nonaka, L., Takeuchi, H., & Umemoto, K. (1996). A theory of organizational knowledge creation. International Journal of Technology Management, 11(7-8), 833-845.
  • (Article) O’dell, C., and C. J. Grayson.(1998)  “If only we knew what we know: Identification and transfer of internal best practices.” California Management Review, 40(3), 154-174.
  • (Article) Phene, A., & Almeida, P. (2008). Innovation in multinational subsidiaries: The role of knowledge assimilation and subsidiary capabilities. Journal of International Business Studies, 39(5), 901-919.
  • (Article) Quintas, P., Lefrere, P., & Jones, G. (1997). Knowledge management: a strategic agenda. Long Range Planning, 30(3), 385-391.
  • (Article) Roper, S., & Hewitt-Dundas, N. (2015). ‘Knowledge stocks, knowledge flows and innovation: Evidence from matched patents and innovation panel data’. Research Policy, 44, 1327-1340.
  • (Article) Rosenkopf, L., & Nerkar, A. (2001). Beyond local search: boundary‐spanning, exploration, and impact in the optical disk industry. Strategic Management Journal, 22(4), 287-306.
  • (Article) Shujahat, M., Sousa, M. J., Hussain, S., Nawaz, F., Wang, M., & Umer, M. (2019). Translating the impact of knowledge management processes into knowledge-based innovation: The neglected and mediating role of knowledge-worker productivity. Journal of Business Research, 94, 442-450.
  • (Article) Spender, J. C., & Grant, R. M. (1996). Knowledge and the firm: Overview. Strategic Management Journal, 17(S2), 5-9.
  • (Article) Starbuck, W. H. (1992). Learning by knowledge‐intensive firms. Journal of Management Studies, 29(6), 713-740.
  • (Article) Sveiby, K. E. (2001). A knowledge-based theory of the firm to guide in strategy formulation. Journal of Intellectual Ccapital, 2(4), 344-358.
  • (Article) Swan, J., Newell, S., Scarbrough, H., & Hislop, D. (1999). Knowledge management and innovation: networks and networking. Journal of Knowledge Management, 3(4), 262-275.
  • (Article) Teece, D. J. (1998). Capturing value from knowledge assets: The new economy, markets for know-how, and intangible assets. California Management Review, 40(3), 55-79.
  • (Article) Tortoriello, M., Reagans, R., & McEvily, B. (2012). Bridging the knowledge gap: The influence of strong ties, network cohesion, and network range on the transfer of knowledge between organizational units. Organization Science, 23(4), 1024-1039.
  • (Article) Tsai, W. (2002). Social structure of “coopetition” within a multiunit organization: Coordination, competition, and intraorganizational knowledge sharing. Organization Science, 13(2), 179-190.
  • (Article) Van Wijk, R., Jansen, J. J., & Lyles, M. A. (2008). Inter‐and intra‐organizational knowledge transfer: a meta‐analytic review and assessment of its antecedents and consequences. Journal of Management Studies, 45(4), 830-853.
  • (Article) Verona, G., & Ravasi, D. (2003). Unbundling dynamic capabilities: an exploratory study of continuous product innovation. Industrial and Corporate Change, 12(3), 577-606.
  • (Article) Zack, Michael H. “Developing a knowledge strategy.” California Management Review 41.3 (1999): 125-145.
  • (Article) Zander, U., & Kogut, B. (1995). Knowledge and speed of the transfer and imitation of organizational capabilities: an empirical test. Organization Science, 6, 76-92.
  • (Article) Zheng, W., Yang, B., & McLean, G. N. (2010). Linking organizational culture, structure, strategy, and organizational effectiveness: Mediating role of knowledge management. Journal of Business Research, 63(7), 763-771

Protecting intellectual capital

Keywords: copyright, infringment, institutions, intellectual property rights, open source, public good, registered design, trademark, trade secret

  • (Book) Grandstand, O. (2005) “Innovation and IPR”, in The Oxford Innovation Handbook, Fagerberg, J. et al. (eds). Oxford University Press, pp. 278-285
  • (Book) Smith D. (2006) “Intellectual property” in Exploring innovation, McGraw-Hill, Irwin, pp. 133-152
  • (Book) Teece, D. J. (2000). Managing intellectual capital: Organizational, strategic, and policy dimensions. OUP Oxford.
  • (Video) IP is a thought crime: Joren De Wachter at TEDxLeuven
  • (Video) Intellectual Property’s Role in Innovation by Kuczmarski Innovation (on Vimeo)
  • (Video) The Zinnovants “Protect your innovative ideas
  • (Article) Block, Joern H., et al. “Trademarks and venture capital valuation.” Journal of Business Venturing 29.4 (2014): 525-542.
  • (Article) Castellaneta, F., Conti, R., Veloso, F. M., & Kemeny, C. A. (2016). The effect of trade secret legal protection on venture capital investments: Evidence from the inevitable disclosure doctrine. Journal of Business Venturing, 31(5), 524-541.
  • (Article) Cohen, W. M., Nelson, R. R., & Walsh, J. P. (2000). Protecting their intellectual assets: Appropriability conditions and why US manufacturing firms patent (or not) (No. w7552). National Bureau of Economic Research.
  • (Article) Gallini, N., & Scotchmer, S. (2002). Intellectual property: when is it the best incentive system?. Innovation policy and the economy, 2, 51-77.
  • (Article) Grasenick, Karin, and Jonathan Low. “Shaken, not stirred: defining and connecting indicators for the measurement and valuation of intangibles.” Journal of Intellectual Capital 5.2 (2004): 268-281.
  • (Article) Heiens, R. A., Leach, R. T., & McGrath, L. C. (2007). The contribution of intangible assets and expenditures to shareholder value. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 15(2-3), 149-159.
  • (Article) McGahan, A. M., & Silverman, B. S. (2006). Profiting from technological innovation by others: The effect of competitor patenting on firm value. Research Policy, 35(8), 1222-1242.
  • (Article) Pisano, G.P. (2006). Profiting from innovation and the intellectual property revolution. Research Policy, 35(8), 1122-1130.
  • (Article) Ritala, P., Olander, H., Michailova, S., & Husted, K. (2015). Knowledge sharing, knowledge leaking and relative innovation performance: An empirical study. Technovation, 35, 22-31.
  • (Article) Samuelson, Paul A. (1954). “The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure”. Review of Economics and Statistics. 36 (4): 387–389. doi:10.2307/1925895. JSTOR 1925895
  • (Article) Scotchmer, S. (1991). Standing on the shoulders of giants: cumulative research and the patent law. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(1), 29-41.
  • (Article) Song, J., Almeida, P., & Wu, G. (2003). Learning–by–Hiring: When is mobility more likely to facilitate interfirm knowledge transfer?. Management Science, 49(4), 351-365.
  • (Article) Stiglitz, J. E. (2008) “Economic Foundations of Intellectual Property Rights”, Duke Law Journal, 57, pp. 1693-1724
  • (Article) Von Hippel, E., & Krogh, G. V. (2003). Open source software and the “private-collective” innovation model: Issues for organization science. Organization Science, 14(2), 209-223.

Managing patents

Keywords: benefits and drawbacks from patents, freedom to operate, licensing, patent applications, patent strategy, patent trolls

  • (Book) Harhoff D. (2011) “The role of patents and license in securing external finance for innovation”, in Audretsch et al. (eds.) Handbook of Research on Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp. 55-73
  • (Book) Lévêque, F., & Ménière, Y. (2004). The economics of patents and copyright.
  • (Book) Schilling M.A. (2006) Strategic Management of Technological Innovation (2d ed.) McGraw-Hill, Irwin, pp.183-199
  • (Video) Rise of the Patent Troll: An “Everything is a Remix” Special Presentation de Kirby Ferguson (on Vimeo)
  • (Article) Anton, J. J., & Yao, D. A. (2004). Little patents and big secrets: managing intellectual property. RAND Journal of Economics, 1-22.
  • (Article) Blind, K., Cremers, K., & Mueller, E. (2009). The influence of strategic patenting on companies’ patent portfolios. Research Policy, 38(2), 428-436.
  • (Article) Blind, K., Edler, J., Frietsch, R., & Schmoch, U. (2006). Motives to patent: Empirical evidence from Germany. Research Policy, 35(5), 655-672.
  • (Article) Ceccagnoli, M. (2009). Appropriability, preemption, and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 30(1), 81-98.
  • (Article) Dechenaux, E., Goldfarb, B., Shane, S., & Thursby, M. (2008). Appropriability and commercialization: Evidence from MIT inventions. Management Science, 54(5), 893-906.
  • (Article) Ernst, H. (2001). Patent applications and subsequent changes of performance: evidence from time-series cross-section analyses on the firm level. Research Policy, 30(1), 143-157.
  • (Article) Fabrizio, K. R., & Di Minin, A. (2008). Commercializing the laboratory: Faculty patenting and the open science environment. Research Policy, 37(5), 914-931.
  • (Article) Gallié, E. & Legros, D. (2012). French Firms’ strategies for Protecting their Intellectual Property. Research Policy, 41(4), 780 – 794.
  • (Article) Gambardella, A., Harhoff, D., & Verspagen, B. (2008). The value of European patents. European Management Review, 5(2), 69-84.
  • (Article) Gans, J. S., Hsu, D. H., & Stern, S. (2008). The impact of uncertain intellectual property rights on the market for ideas: Evidence from patent grant delays. Management Science, 54(5), 982-997.
  • (Article) Giuri, P., Mariani, M., Brusoni, S., Crespi, G., Francoz, D., Gambardella, A., … & Hoisl, K. (2007). Inventors and invention processes in Europe: Results from the PatVal-EU survey. Research Policy, 36(8), 1107-1127.
  • (Article) Griliches, Z. (1998). Patent statistics as economic indicators: a survey. In R&D and productivity: the econometric evidence (pp. 287-343). University of Chicago Press.
  • (Article) Großmann, A. M., Filipović, E., & Lazina, L. (2016). The strategic use of patents and standards for new product development knowledge transfer. R&D Management, 46(2), 312-325.
  • (Article) Haeussler, C., Harhoff, D., & Mueller, E. (2014). How patenting informs VC investors–The case of biotechnology. Research Policy, 43(8), 1286-1298.
  • (Article) Hall, B. H., & Ziedonis, R. H. (2001). The patent paradox revisited: an empirical study of patenting in the US semiconductor industry, 1979-1995. Rand Journal of Economics, 101-128.
  • (Article) Heller, M. A., & Eisenberg, R. S. (1998). Can patents deter innovation? The anticommons in biomedical research. Science, 280(5364), 698-701.
  • (Article) Henkel, J., Schöberl, S., & Alexy, O. (2014). The emergence of openness: How and why firms adopt selective revealing in open innovation. Research Policy, 43(5), 879-890.
  • (Article) Jell, F., Henkel, J., & Wallin, M. W. (2017). Offensive patent portfolio races. Long Range Planning, 50(5), 531-549.
  • (Article) Leiponen, A., & Byma, J. (2009). If you cannot block, you better run: Small firms, cooperative innovation, and appropriation strategies. Research Policy, 38(9), 1478-1488.
  • (Article) Lemley, M. A., & Shapiro, C. (2005). Probabilistic patents. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(2), 75-98.
  • (Article) Levin, R. C., Klevorick, A. K., Nelson, R. R., Winter, S. G., Gilbert, R., & Griliches, Z. (1987). Appropriating the returns from industrial research and development. Brookings papers on economic activity, 1987(3), 783-831.
  • (Article) Levine, S. S., & Prietula, M. J. (2013). Open collaboration for innovation: Principles and performance. Organization Science, 25(5), 1414-1433.
  • (Article) Long (2002) “Information Costs in patent and copyright” Virginia Law Review, 90(2), pp. 463-549
  • (Article) Mansfield, E., Schwartz, M., & Wagner, S. (1981). Imitation costs and patents: an empirical study. The Economic Journal, 91(364), 907-918.
  • (Article) Moser, P. (2013). Patents and innovation: evidence from economic history. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 27(1), 23-44.
  • (Article) Mowery, D. C., Nelson, R. R., Sampat, B. N., & Ziedonis, A. A. (2001). The growth of patenting and licensing by US universities: an assessment of the effects of the Bayh–Dole act of 1980. Research Policy, 30(1), 99-119.
  • (Article) Mowery, D. C., Sampat, B. N., & Ziedonis, A. A. (2002). Learning to patent: Institutional experience, learning, and the characteristics of US university patents after the Bayh-Dole Act, 1981-1992. Management Science, 48(1), 73-89.
  • (Article) Paik, Y., & Zhu, F. (2016). The impact of patent wars on firm strategy: evidence from the global smartphone industry. Organization Science, 27(6), 1397-1416.
  • (Article) Parker, G., & Van Alstyne, M. (2018). Innovation, openness, and platform control. Management Science, 64(7), 3015-3032
  • (Article) Pisano, G.P. & Teece, D.J. (2007). How to Capture Value from Innovation: Shaping Intellectual Property and Industry Architecture. California Management Review. 50(1), 278 –296.
  • (Article) Reitzig, M., Henkel, J., & Heath, C. (2007). On sharks, trolls, and their patent prey—Unrealistic damage awards and firms’ strategies of “being infringed”. Research Policy, 36(1), 134-154.
  • (Article) Schmidt, M. P. (2013). Patent strategies in the process‐related industries: outline of the problems. R&D Management, 43(3), 242-251.
  • (Article) Somaya, D. (2012). Patent strategy and management: An integrative review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 38(4), 1084-1114.
  • (Article) Steensma, H. K., Chari, M., & Heidl, R. (2015). The quest for expansive intellectual property rights and the failure to disclose known relevant prior art. Strategic Management Journal, 36(8), 1186-1204.
  • (Article) West, J. (2003). How open is open enough?: Melding proprietary and open source platform strategies. Research Policy, 32(7), 1259-1285.
  • (Article) Williams, H. L. (2013). Intellectual property rights and innovation: Evidence from the human genome. Journal of Political Economy, 121(1), 1-27.
  • (Article) Ziedonis, R. H. (2004). Don’t fence me in: Fragmented markets for technology and the patent acquisition strategies of firms. Management Science, 50(6), 804-820.
  • (Article) Ziedonis, R. H. (2008). On the apparent failure of patents: A response to Bessen and Meurer. Academy of Management Perspectives, 22(4), 21-29.

One Comment Leave a comment

Submit comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Identify the bibliographic reference you are commenting.